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How to avoid Coliform Bacteria in Water (symptoms, treatment, and solutions)

What are Coli form Bacteria found in Water?
Coli forms (such as E-Coli Bacteria) are a broad class of microscopic organisms that could cause illness some times called Pathogenic Bacteria because it is disease-causing organisms of digestive tracts of Mammals (human and some animals) so that Coliform Bacteria is Harmful when found in drinking Water.
This Coliforms Bacteria in Water sources is also live in human and animals digestive tracts and doesn't cause illness.

What is the difference between Coliform Bacteria in Water and E-coli Bacteria?
Coliform Bacteria in Water include Total Coliforms that include Bacteria that found in the soil and from human and animal waste and the Fecal Coliforms are the group of the total Coliforms that found in gut and faces of warm-blooded animals so that it is considered a more accurate indicator of animal or human waste than the total Coliforms, and the specific type of Fecal Coliforms is Escherichia coli (E. coli) that is the best indicator of fecal pollution and the possible presence of pathogens. So that total the total coli forms in Water is not represents only the E-Coli type of Bacteria in Water but all forms of coli Bacteria in Water.
bacteria in water bottles
The common sources of Coliform 
  1. Well Water that it may be contaminated by sewage or manure, fecal material of human or animal sources and there is a risk of exposure to Water-borne disease such as Typhoid, dysentery, Cholera, Hepatitis and Giardiasis where adult animals are more tolerant of Bacteria than young animals which rapidly develops Coliform Bacteria symptoms of such diseases and require fast testing and treatment. 
  2. Naturally occurring Bacteria in Water supplies does not cause disease, but does form a reddish-brown slime that coats the inside of pipes and clogs pumps.
Main causes and Sources of presence the Coliforms in Water supplies 
Bacteria in water wells present by contamination of Well Water by waste, septic systems and open surface of Water Well is the most common cause of Bacteria-contaminated Water. Also may be Coliforms Bacteria found in pool Water and contaminated Water bottles.

1- Presence of Coliform Bacteria in Well Water:
Missing or cracked Well cap will allow the contaminants to enter the Well, also Wells made of concrete, clay tile, or brick may have holes or seepages allow the entering of not filtered Water to Well, another cause of contaminating Well Water with Coliforms Bacteria is the defective Well caps and constructions beside Well flooding below the ground in frost pits that frequently flood during wet weather. That was the common causes of presence the Coliform in Well Water.

2- Bacteria in Reused Plastic Water Bottles: 
Re-used water bottles for refilling it with tap water or that coffee cup you use for a few days can pose a danger only because it’s allowing bacteria to be grown.
While "Bottled water is considered to be a food product and is regulated under the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations. These regulations include requirements for microbiological quality, composition and labeling,"

The high bacteria levels were more associated with poor hygiene practices than with the plastic bottles themselves. Bacteria grow naturally in moist, warm environments, and virtually any container can provide the right circumstances for bacterial growth.
Containers designed with the narrow mouths of the bottles make them difficult to clean, the best factor allowing Bacterial growth beneath curves and corners.

Testing water sample from water bottle:
By providing an isolated sample from bottled water to the lab to carry out a Bacterial Culture test you can swabs the inside lip of the bottle and Go to Laboratory for testing water sample

Lab Analysis by making a Bacterial culture as following Procedures show you what steps do biologists take after finding bacteria in water bottles or whatever any source.
  1. Biologists Spreads that swab on a petrie dish. And provide oxygen to simulate environment of kinds of microbes that inhabit our mouths and give the bacteria the perfect environment to grow in. 
  2. 24 hours later we headed back to the lab to see what spawned in the plates. 
The Bacterial culture for this water sample will be: 
  1. Un-opened bottle had no growth 
  2. The 24-hour plate, the one week and the one month all had a bevy of bacteria, if you see little bright, white colonies and all are the same. It could be staphylococcus. 
  3. May be other samples showed several different types of bacteria. "These could be streptococcus.
  4. According to the USP, no more than 500 colony forming units (cfu) per milliliter of bacteria should be present in drinking water. In comparison, the average count for different tap water samples was 170cfu/mL .While some studies said that Bacteria found by water culture could be pathogenic and pose a risk for vulnerable populations such as the elderly, pregnant women, infants, and immuno-compromised patients. 
How to Cleaning Bottles correctly to avoid Bacterial growth: 
  1. Make a suspension of water and soap then warm it on the fire 
  2. Put your plastic water bottles in this suspension after being warmed. 
  3. Still sinking bottles for 30 min to kill most of Bacteria already found in the bottle 
  4. Dry it in the autoclave or other disinfection tool you have to prevent Bacterial growth again 
PS.: Please do not use old bottles for more than one month because it even cleaning can destroy plastic integrity of bottles and causing it to leach toxic chemicals into the water.

3- Bacterial Risks in water heater and in electric heated water bowls or bacteria in solar hot water tanks. 
The often misdiagnosed as common pneumonia. Trace amounts of these bacteria are often present in municipal water supplies but do not thrive in the cold temperatures. Once inside a hot water heater, however, Legionella bacteria multiplies and is conveyed through Very young children and elderly people are particularly at risk.

That is all because the heated water and Oxygen exchange over the closed system of water heaters considered a Perfect growth medium for Bacteria, most hazardous bacteria found in water heaters is Legionella pneumophila (also found in the household plumbing, where it may be inhaled in the aerosol mist that accompanies showering, bathing or even washing dishes in a sink) , known to be the source of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection

4- Bacteria in water coolers and in old bottled water Many Health risks associated with stored water in water coolers, even with low nutrients bacterial growth could be happens, the best solution is to clean coolers periodically to prevent such silent bacterial growth in multiple sources and supplies of drinking water.

Treatment of Bacteria in water from different sources: 
1. Rising the temperature above 120 degree will kill al kinds of such bacteria even bacterial capsules are destroyed at temperature greater than 120°. And to get rid of sulfur eating bacteria in hot water tank sitable method for Hot water Sources and tanks (solar or electrical).

2. Shock chlorination may be another successful solution too (only 200 mg/L chlorine will do the job), especially for Iron and sulfur eating Bacteria that comes from unsanitary well drilling. To disinfect pipes, gravel pack material, pumps, and tools.
Also this method may applied for coliform bacteria in well water treatment process due to low cost of Chlorine and such derivatives in comparison with UV or Hydrogen peroxide 

3. Hydrogen peroxide can kill Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C or HIV viruses
Useful Therapy by H2O2, Ozone or rubbing alcohol, and other or other corrosive chemicals would destroy the bacteria or virus such as HIV virus or even Herpes too, but most chemicals are deadly if placed in the body. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone are two relatively safe chemicals.
Hydrogen peroxide breaks things down into water and oxygen and also Hydrogen Peroxide is known the break down viruses, bacteria, and fungi. When in contact, HP will change the structural make-up and create oxygen and water molecules. After removing H and O molecules from a compound, the complete structure of the virus, bacteria, or fungi would be destroyed. Also Acid treatment or base treatment with soda ash are good solution too

4. Ultraviolet light water treatment and disinfection 
It is most expensive disinfection method but most effective way to kill al kind of viral and bacterial infections of many species of disease-causing microorganisms such as (e.g. Giardia, Cryptosporidium) found in drinking water. UV inactivates micro-organisms by destroying the DNA and RNA strips of such Organisms and thus makes it unable to multiplying and thus Viruses and Bacteria has been killed with clean disinfection method. Where UV water treatment systems allow UV light occurs with a wavelength ranging from 200 to 390 nanometers (nm). The most effective wavelength frequency, from the point-of-view of microbiological disinfection, is 254 nm as this is where the optimum energy intensity is found.

How you do know that you are infected by contaminated water? Drinking contaminated (impure) water causes high risk of infection by E-coli and enteric microbes. Symptoms appear after 7 days of infection date and are:
  1. Sudden severe abdominal cramps 
  2. After hours, watery diarrhea due to dehydration (lose of fluid and electrolytes from the body) lasts for a day 
  3. Bloody diarrhea lasts for 2 to 5 days: stool becomes bright red bloody consistence due to Bacterial sores in your intestines, so may be stool become all blood and no stool indeed, with 10 or more bowel movements each day. 
  4. Symptoms are followed by Vomiting, cramps, nausea and fever that makes you feel sick and tired beside the blood and watery diarrhea.
 Please when feel very tired with abnormal stomach pain go to your Doctor fast.

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